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Indian Environmental Challenges: Impact & Solutions
Urban areas have experienced an unprecedented rate of growth over the last 30 years. As a result the mitigation phenomenon to big cities from rural areas has started the last decades and cannot be controlled.
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Unfortunately as it is going to be explained below the infrastructure lacks and so does not usually ensure a friendly and sustainable place for the immigrant-dwellers. More than 20 huge cities with over than 10 million inhabitants around the world were identified; three of the cities, Mumbai, Delhi and Kolkatta, were on the Indian subcontinent. Mumbai with 3.
In the new mega cities with the uncontrolled urbanization a huge percent of the population is accommodated in slums without houses, hospitals, hostels, roads, no kind of city planning and finally but most importantly no sanitation, drainage system and water treatment. Picture 2 Ref.
The rapid and extensive sprawl of the urban population cannot provide the urban planners with the information needed in order to provide plans with the appropriate amenities such as water, sanitation and electricity. Also where underground sewerage system exist there is a danger of seepage in the corroded pipes which may cause great health hazards like hepatitis and diarrhoea epidemics. In Calcutta for example there are 11, factories and , cars.
Unfortunately rivers are heavily polluted by industrial wastes. The public hospitals and its stuff shows a very apathetic attitude to the patients in the public hospitals which enforce them to prefer the private clinics. The poverty leads the men to alcoholism and few women to prostitution. Crime rates have been increased tremendously as well as death in the cities due to accidents and lack of transport and road safety education.
Are charectirized from high levels of energy consumption, burning of fossil fuels and concentrated activities in disproportionate land. Unfortunately the overpopulation of these sites and their rapid expansion to the suburban areas makes the problem even worse and impossible to be solved apace. In conclusion urbanization problems have arisen from rural poverty and unemployment which motivated the citizens to migrate to big industrial cities. There is not however the appropriate infrastructure to accomodate the new comers or proper planning of transport, water, drainage and health care delivery system.
The Millennium Declaration adopted 8 development goals for India are briefly presented below. National Rural Employment Act will help to reduce the poverty ratio even further. Also this step involves the protection of forests and presrvation of natural resources. These goals are intended to confront poverty, illiteracy, hunger, lack of education, gender inequality, infant and maternal mortality, disease and environmental degradation.
I heard a lot of causes of Environmental Degradation and I want to analyze them by myself. That is all my reasons of choosing exactly this theme. In the course of my work on the Socio economic issues refer to problems that affect the economy and the social lives of citizens.
What is Environmental Degradation? Environmental degradation is a process through which the natural environment is compromised in some way, reducing biological diversity and the general health of the environment. This process can be entirely natural in origin, or it can be accelerated or caused by human activities.
Many international organizations recognize environmental degradation as one of the major threats facing the planet, since humans have only been given one Earth to work with, and if the environment becomes irreparably compromised, it could mean the end of human existence. These resources, which are affected, include: water, air and soil. The degradation also impacts our wildlife, plants, animals and microorganisms.
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How Environmental Degradation Occurs Urbanization Population growth Economic growth Intensification of agriculture Increase in energy use Increase in Environmental changes are based on many factors including: Transportation Cutting down massive forests Many theories have been advanced to justify and analyse which is the best behaviour humans should maintain in order to fulfil utilitarian doctrine and enhance social well-being. This review will focus on the main themes the utilitarian literature has analysed on this specific topic.
These themes are: the impact of population growth on the maximisation of happiness, the act-utilitarianism criticisms, the importance of the future of the environment in the utilitarian view and the value of the cost-benefit analysis in order to evaluate the ethical worth of an action. Most utilitarian theories about environment deal with the impact of population growth on the environmental deterioration.
Some early philosophers, such as Jeremy Bentham Bentham on population and Government, believed that the only effect that an increasing population may lead to is the improvement of social welfare. He contended emigration in most cases is not beneficial for a country because it may cause human capital losses, while population growth There is an important interrelationship between the city and its environment here.
Environmental Degradation in post-conquest Mexico, around the Basin of Mexico, has been often ignored by scholars. There is evidence suggesting the environment was already modified to a degree. Environmental effects from the neolithic age spanning across Central and South America included settled Radioactive wastes are usually by-products of nuclear power generation and other applications of nuclear fission or nuclear technology, such as research and medicine. Radioactive waste is hazardous to most forms of life and the environment, and is regulated by government agencies in order to protect human health and the environment.
Radioactivity diminishes over time, so waste is typically isolated and stored for a period of time until it no longer poses a hazard.
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The period of time waste must be stored depends on the type of waste. Low-level waste with low levels of radioactivity per mass or volume such as some common medical or industrial radioactive wastes may need to be stored for only hours, days, or months, while high-level wastes such as spent nuclear fuel or by-products of nuclear reprocessing must be stored for thousands of years.
Current major approaches to managing radioactive waste have been segregation and storage for short-lived wastes, nearsurface disposal for low and some intermediate level wastes, and deep burial or transmutation for the long-lived, high-level wastes. A summary of the amounts of radioactive wastes and management approaches for most developed countries are presented and reviewed periodically as part of the International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety Although environmental problems cannot be coped hundred percent, we should contribute our efforts to minimize the environmental problems.
This essay attempts to examine the causes and effects of environmental problems that happened in Malaysia. Firstly, let me look at deforestation that is the main cause of environmental problems. Deforestation is an activity of cutting down the trees without restriction and it is an illegal activity in all countries includes Malaysia.
It started with the simple cutting of trees, but was soon with the use of fire to clear the land.
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For instance, farmers in rural places clear forest by burning the trees for planting and grazing. Thus, government should deem deforestation as a stringent issue and take actions to cope with it. Moreover, emissions from the factories such as greenhouse gases, toxic waste and other chemical substances can harm living things that live nearly to those factories.
In this case, factory pollution is considered as environmental problems that should be confront and cease in Malaysia. Once pollutants emit to the atmosphere or water system, they can spread far and beyond the factory. Factories contribute to water and land pollution by chemical spills and discharge of toxic waste. Sign Up. Sign In. Sign Up Sign In.