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Slideshow: Fall Commencement, Thursday evening ceremony 2 hours ago Slideshow: Fall Commencement, Thursday afternoon ceremony 17 hours ago Slideshow: Fall Commencement, Thursday morning ceremony 23 hours ago. This study uses qualitative interview data obtained from nine police officers accessed via a Police Neighbourhood Team over a two week period in December The resulting data was used in an attempt to explore the links between power, authority and the wearing of the police uniform and to discuss the social impact their occupation has on their lives outside the force.
Royal Holloway University of London.
This study cri tically analysed the extent to which the doctrine of joint enterprise criminalises young BAME individuals and how gang narratives contribute to the prosecution of BAME groups. By conducting three semi-structured interviews with academics and a campaign coordinator, it was discovered that the process of prosecution of young BAME groups is underpinned by a gang narrative which is fuelled by racist stereotyping. The legitimacy of whether joint enterprise is fair and just was also brought into question highlighting the lower evidential threshold in these cases, harsh sentencing practices and the problems with secondary liability.
Recommendations are made regarding the criminalisation BAME youth who are labelled as gang-involved and the necessity for research that probes into the lives of BAME groups in their communities to prevent gang stereotyping and reduce the impact of joint enterprise on BAME individuals.
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This dissertation addresses the phenomenon of Western female Muslims migrating to join the so-called Islamic State. The report utilizes the existing literature on the subject to first of all critically discuss the pathways that lead young women and girls away from their lives in the UK and into the arms of a terrorist organisation. The second part of the report will look at the main roles carried out by these women when they get to ISIS-controlled territory and the implications for future threats to security.
Contemporary Controversies Surrounding Capital Punishment: How does the deterrence theory, victim participation and human rights impact upon current debate? This dissertation examines three issues of capital punishment that are central to current debate. The areas that are of concern include: the efficacy of the deterrent effect, the role and impact for victims in capital cases and human rights influences. In the evaluation of the deterrence effect, the retrospective data revealed that murders and sanctions are independent phenomena.
A comparison of abolitionist and retentionist states in the United States of America informed us that there is no apparent correlation between imposing the death penalty and a reduction in the average homicide rate. There are various other social and demographic factors that may have more impact upon crime. It is argued that the four main dimensions of punishment that the deterrence theory relies upon — severity, certainty, celerity, and publicity — are not exercised sufficiently for the death penalty to act as an effective to deterrent to murder in the United States of America.
Women in Prison: A Forgotten Population? This dissertation examines the gendered experiences of women in prison. As a result, there is a view that women are being disadvantaged in terms of the delivery of services within the prison regime including access to appropriate prison rehabilitation programmes and healthcare provision. The literature review identifies the differences in the way men and women experience prison through examples of discrimination. It also highlights the key differences between male and female prisoners including offence type, life experiences and coping mechanisms therefore recognising them as a unique group in need of specialised treatment.
However, an investigation into prison rehabilitation programmes and the specific issues facing women in custody such as gynaecological health, pregnancy and childcare, revealed a distinct lack of gender-specifity in available services. It concludes that the small numbers of female prisoners have been subsumed into the majority male population and as a consequence, their needs are failing to be met during custody.
This reduces the overall effectiveness of imprisonment as a punitive sanction for women offenders, suggesting that perhaps an entirely new approach is needed. The crime drop of the western industrialised world has baffled criminologists of late, defying all predictions.
Despite numerous attempts to explain it, no consensus has arisen as to the cause. Therefore, incorporating numerous hypotheses may be the way forward in order to formulate a more comprehensive understanding of the reasons for the decline in crime. The hypothesis presented by this dissertation aims to contribute to that, examining whether improvements to and widespread availability of media entertainment and communication devices have caused the crime drop, specifically in the UK.
When comparing statistics from the British Crime Survey regarding victimisation in England and Wales with independent research into ownership and use of leisure and communication technologies, strong visible relationships were found. Routine Activity Theory is used to examine the possible effect that ownership and usage trends of these technologies has on crime victimisation.
Since Routine Activity Theory could not explicate the reasons for these potential effects, the dissertation speculates various possible explanations for the effect. It is found that the hypothesis is plausible and can be applied to many victimisation crimes, though it is only a partial explanation and must work in conjunction with other hypotheses in order to mutually improve their effectiveness in explaining and continuing the crime drop. This thesis questions the accepted use of typologies in an official capacity.
To examine if typologies are of practical use in the study of serial homicide, potential implications of their use are critically discussed in five contexts, those of prevention, investigation, profiling, utilisation in court, and with respect to societal contentment. It is concluded that due to the inherent ambiguity of typological thinking and the inability of categorisation to characterise human behaviours, the use of such methods does more to impede understanding than it does to improve it.
Rather, such pursuits are borne out of a very human desire to understand, and hence control the uncontrollable. There has been much research in recent years into the causes of the well-known phenomenon that mentally impaired people tend to be over-represented as defendants in the criminal justice process. Less research, however, has been undertaken into why such defendants and suspects appear to be at a higher risk of making false confessions.
This may be because it appears that there is a simple answer to this question: such suspects are mentally impaired and vulnerable to the pressures of the criminal justice system, particularly those involved in being interviewed by the police.
This is certainly one valid reason but it is by no means the only reason. Research suggests several causal factors are involved. This paper examines some of these causal factors and in doing so reveals the incremental nature of knowledge construction which various researchers have taken in their studies.
Dispositional factors and situational factors are both instrumental in causing false confessions.
The paper concludes that there is no one major factor that leads mentally impaired suspects to make false confessions more than suspects who are not mentally impaired but rather it is a combination of factors. The aim of this study is to critically analyse whether imprisonment for women is a justifiable form of punishment, or whether alternative approaches are more appropriate. This work was conducted to determine the impact of human security concerns within security policies of, the dictatorships of Tunisia, Egypt and Libya upon the Arab Spring and the fall of the regimes in the region of Northern Africa in Discussion of this change aids an exploration of realist security policies adopted by Tunisian, Egyptian and Libyan authorities during the 20th century post-colonial state-building period.
What emerges from this is a discussion of how an ignorance of human security within continually realist security policies eventually led to the downfall of the dictatorial regimes when the legitimacy of those regimes was challenged by a changing international political and economic situation. The research area of imprisonment and its effects on inmates has had a long and complex history over the past decades, with researchers having varying opinions.
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Early researchers suggested that imprisonment had negative psychological and physical effects on its inmates, leading to psychological deterioration. More recent research, on the other hand, has suggested that imprisonment is not as detrimental as first thought. This review aims to provide an overview of the coping strategies, adjustment and well being of male inmates in the prison environment.
Additionally, a systematic review methodology is adopted to examine the relationships between coping strategies, adjustment and well being of male inmates. The objectives of this review were, firstly, to determine if coping strategies affect the adaptation, adjustment and well being of inmates and, secondly, to determine if institutional changes can improve inmate adjustment and coping.
The results were mixed, but demonstrate that there is a complex relationship between the coping strategies, adjustment and well being of male inmates and that institutional opportunities and changes can be beneficial. The review concludes that there is a link between coping strategies, adjustment and well being of male inmates and that therapeutic communities, such as those at HMP Grendon, would be useful in conventional prisons to help inmates adjust and reform. This dissertation examines both serial killers and terrorists in the hope that a more comprehensive understanding and look into their behaviour, can help counter their deviance.
In demonstrating the similarities and differences between the two, this dissertation aims to decipher if a terrorist could in fact be far more analogous to a serial killer than what is often believed.
The findings of which unearth an ambidextrous dichotomy. Previous research suggests that peoples view of crime is not in line with official statistics and that people think crime is on the increase when official figure suggest that crime rates and in particular homicide rates are decreasing Mattinson and Mirrlees-Black, ; McDonald, ; Mitchell and Roberts, In recent years there has been an increase in the consumption of media, which has led to concerns about whether it is criminogenic.
This research aims to evaluate the ways in which the media can be considered criminogenic via two outcomes — imitation of acts and incitement to crime. In order to assess the influence of media on imitation and incitement, a secondary methodological approach has been utilised; a literature review was used to compile evidence from a number of resources — including books and journals accessed through Nottingham Trent University. In addition, this research makes use of newspaper articles to gather anecdotal evidence for the purpose of analysing imitative behaviour of fictional media.
This evidence provides details about specific cases of criminality, which is analysed in conjunction with the media individuals are purported to have imitated to evaluate the extent to which media is relevant in the cases discussed. Bentham Versus Kroppotkin: A view on the use of prison as a punishment for criminal behaviour.
The prison is used as a major form of punishment and is currently the ultimate penalty given to criminals who break the law in contemporary society. However, despite its widespread use, the effectiveness of the prison has always been a widely debated controversial issue.http://pierreducalvet.ca/21678.php
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Utilitarian Jeremy Bentham and anarchist Peter Kropotkin have presented opposing views on the use of the prison as a form of punishment. This dissertation will outline these two diverse perspectives. This forms the basis of their conflicting solutions to reduce crime, in an attempt to answer whether the prison service is an effective form of punishment for criminal behaviour.
On the other hand, Kropotkin demanded absolute abolition of the prison and all forms of authority within society, in order to allow for cooperation and mutual aid. However, despite their differences it is evident that both Bentham and Kropotkin would disagree with how the prison operates today. As a result greater focus has been placed upon minority ethnic within England and Wales.